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J Carcinog. 2007 Apr 18;6:4.

Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer.

Coates EM, Popa G, Gill CI, McCann MJ, McDougall GJ, Stewart D, Rowland I.

Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, University of Ulster (Coleraine), Cromore Road, Coleraine, Co, Londonderry BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: There is a probable association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduced risk of cancer, particularly cancer of the digestive tract. This anti-cancer activity has been attributed in part to anti-oxidants present in these foods. Raspberries in particular are a rich source of the anti-oxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins. METHODS: A "colon-available" raspberry extract (CARE) was prepared that contained phytochemicals surviving a digestion procedure that mimicked the physiochemical conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The polyphenolic-rich extract was assessed for anti-cancer properties in a series of in vitro systems that model important stages of colon carcinogenesis, initiation, promotion and invasion. RESULTS: The phytochemical composition of CARE was monitored using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The colon-available raspberry extract was reduced in anthocyanins and ellagitannins compared to the original raspberry juice but enriched in other polyphenols and polyphenol breakdown products that were more stable to gastrointestinal digestion. Initiation--CARE caused significant protective effects against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in HT29 colon cancer cells measured using single cell microgelelectrophoresis. Promotion--CARE significantly decreased the population of HT29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, effectively reducing the number of cells entering the cell cycle. However, CARE had no effect on epithelial integrity (barrier function) assessed by recording the trans-epithelial resistance (TER) of CACO-2 cell monolayers. Invasion--CARE caused significant inhibition of HT115 colon cancer cell invasion using the matrigel invasion assay. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that raspberry phytochemicals likely to reach the colon are capable of inhibiting several important stages in colon carcinogenesis in vitro.

Source: PubMed



Life Sci. 2005 May 27;77(2):194-204. Epub 2005 Feb 25.

Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone.

Morimoto C, Satoh Y, Hara M, Inoue S, Tsujita T, Okuda H.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shigenobu-cho, Onsen-gun, Ehime 791-0295, Japan. [email protected]

Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one; RK) is a major aromatic compound of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The structure of RK is similar to the structures of capsaicin and synephrine, compounds known to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism. The present study was performed to clarify whether RK helps prevent obesity and activate lipid metabolism in rodents. To test the effect on obesity, our group designed the following in vivo experiments: 1) mice were fed a high-fat diet including 0.5, 1, or 2% of RK for 10 weeks; 2) mice were given a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and subsequently fed the same high-fat diet containing 1% RK for the next 5 weeks. RK prevented the high-fat-diet-induced elevations in body weight and the weights of the liver and visceral adipose tissues (epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric). RK also decreased these weights and hepatic triacylglycerol content after they had been increased by a high-fat diet. RK significantly increased norepinephrine-induced lipolysis associated with the translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase from the cytosol to lipid droplets in rat epididymal fat cells. In conclusion, RK prevents and improves obesity and fatty liver. These effects appear to stem from the action of RK in altering the lipid metabolism, or more specifically, in increasing norepinephrine-induced lipolysis in white adipocytes.

Source: PubMed



Nutr Cancer. 2006;54(1):58-68.

Suppression of the tumorigenic phenotype in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by an ethanol extract derived from freeze-dried black raspberries.

Rodrigo KA, Rawal Y, Renner RJ, Schwartz SJ, Tian Q, Larsen PE, Mallery SR.

Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.

Despite focused efforts to improve therapy, 5-yr survival rates for persons with advanced-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remain discouragingly low. Clearly, early detection combined with strategies for local intervention, such as chemoprevention prior to SCC development, could dramatically improve clinical outcomes. Previously conducted oral cavity human chemoprevention trials, however, have provided mixed results. Although some therapies showed efficacy, they were often accompanied by either significant toxicities or circulating antiadenoviral antibodies. It is clearly apparent that identification of nontoxic, effective treatments is essential to prevent malignant transformation of oral epithelial dysplasias. This study employed cell lines isolated from human oral SCC tumors to investigate the effects of a freeze-dried black raspberry ethanol extract (RO-ET) on cellular growth characteristics often associated with a transformed phenotype such as sustained proliferation, induction of angiogenesis, and production of high levels of reactive species. Our results demonstrate that RO-ET suppresses cell proliferation without perturbing viability, inhibits translation of the complete angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor, suppresses nitric oxide synthase activity, and induces both apoptosis and terminal differentiation. These data imply that RO-ET is a promising candidate for use as a chemopreventive agent in persons with oral epithelial dysplasia

Source: PubMed