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J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jun;49(6):2767-73.

Isolation and characterization of structurally novel antimutagenic flavonoids from spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

Edenharder R, Keller G, Platt KL, Unger KK.

Department of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, University of Mainz , Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, D-55131 Mainz , Germany . [email protected]

Thirteen compounds, isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), acted as antimutagens against the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. The antimutagens were purified by preparative and micropreparative HPLC from a methanol/water (70:30, v/v) extract of dry spinach (commercial product) after removal of lipophilic compounds such as chlorophylls and carotenoids by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Pure active compounds were identified by instrumental analysis including FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. All of these compounds were flavonoids and related compounds that could be attributed to five groups: (A, methylenedioxyflavonol glucuronides) 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavonol 3-O-beta-glucuronide (compound 1), 5,2',3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavonol 3-O-beta-glucuronide (compound 2), 5-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavonol 3-O-beta-glucuronide (compound 3); (B, flavonol glucuronides) 5,6,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavonol 3-O-beta-glucuronide (compound 4), 5,6-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavonol 3-O-beta-glucuronide (compound 5); (C, flavonol disaccharides) 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavonol 3-O-disaccharide (compound 6), 5,6,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavonol 3-O-disaccharide (compounds 7 and 8); (D, flavanones) 5,8,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (compound 9), 7,8,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (compound 10); (E, flavonoid-related compounds) compounds 11, 12, and 13 with incompletely elucidated structures. The yield of compound 1 was 0.3%, related to dry weight, whereas the yields of compounds 2-13 ranged between 0.017 and 0.069%. IC(50) values (antimutagenic potencies) of the flavonol glucuronides ranged between 24.2 and 58.2 microM, whereas the flavonol disaccharides (compounds 7 and 8), the flavanones (compounds 9 and 10), and the flavonoid-related glycosidic compounds 11-13 were only weakly active. The aglycons of compounds 7 and 8, however, were potent antimutagens (IC(50) = 10.4 and 13.0 microM, respectively).

Source: PubMed

Cancer Lett. 2005 Mar 18;220(1):75-84.

Neoxanthin and fucoxanthin induce apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.

Kotake-Nara E, Asai A, Nagao A.

National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan .

Neoxanthin and fucoxanthin, which have the characteristic structure of 5,6-monoepoxide and an allenic bond, were previously found to reduce the viability of human prostate cancer cells most intensively among 15 dietary carotenoids tested. In the present study, the induction of apoptosis in PC-3 cells by these two carotenoids was characterized by morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, an increased percentage of hypodiploid cells, and cleavages of caspase-3 and PARP. The ratio of apoptotic cells reached more than 30% after treatment for 48 h with 20 microM carotenoids. They reduced the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins, but not Bcl-X(L). Fucoxanthin accumulated in the cells at the same level as neoxanthin. Moreover, fucoxanthinol, a deacetylated product of fucoxanthin, formed in the cells treated with fucoxanthin and reached a level comparable to that of fucoxanthin after incubation for 24 h. Treatment by fucoxanthinol alone also induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Thus, neoxanthin and fucoxanthin treatments were found to induce apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells .

Source: PubMed